Sessions > CB1 Carbonates & Bioconstructions
SYMPOSIUM CB1 - CARBONATES & BIOCONSTRUCTIONS
Carbonates and bioconstructions formed in various marine and non-marine sedimentary systems in Precambrian and Phanerozoic times. The control and influence of skeletal biota and microbial mats into the processes that lead to the precipitation and formation of carbonates make carbonate rocks fundamental archives of past ecological, environmental, oceanographic and climatic conditions.
The objectives of this symposium are to gather a broad scientific community dealing with carbonates and bioconstructions in the widest sense through sessions aiming to document and better understand the processes and products of carbonate accumulations and bioconstructions, including their diagenetic history, and their implications for the understanding of sedimentary systems, sedimentary basins and paleoenvironmental reconstructions and evolutions, climate change and sea-level oscillations. All time scales, geological periods, sedimentary and depositional environments are concerned.
Description. This open session invites contributions on the general topics related to Carbonates and Bioconstructions. It is an opportunity to present studies that do not fall within research covered by the special sessions CB1.1 to CB1.14.
Description. An understanding of the controls of past carbonate sedimentation is fundamental to predicting the future of carbonate deposition. The atmospheric CO2 concentration is approaching levels comparable to those last experienced 40–50 million years ago. The records of climatic, oceanographic and environmental changes preserved in carbonate sequences can provide new insights into the likely consequences of human activities.
In this session we shall explore a range of geochemical, biological and stratigraphic proxies and their applications to understand the sedimentary record of carbonate successions in the Earth history context.
Description. Carbonates deposited in continental settings are valuable repositories of environmental, biological, climatic, hydrologic and tectonic information. This session will focus on carbonate facies formed in the wide range of continental depositional settings (lacustrine, fluvial, spring, pedogenic), with emphasis on the processes and products of carbonate precipitation and the influence of microbial communities to build distinct deposits.
Here we welcome contributions focused on understanding how intrinsic and extrinsic factors control the depositional environment, carbonate precipitation, facies types and depositional architecture at different scales. We encourage both experimental and field studies.
Conveners. Christian BETZLER (Universität Hamburg, DEU), Jean BORGOMANO (CEREGE Aix-Marseille, FRA), Thierry MULDER (EPOC Bordeaux, FRA), Angel PUGA BERNABEU (Universidad de Granada, ESP), John REIJMER (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KSA)
Description. The slopes and basinal areas surrounding platforms contain an expanded record of sea level, current and climate history because of the high sedimentation rate from pelagic and neritic sources. The slopes are a volumetrically significant part of a carbonate platform and important for the stratigraphic correlation between the shallow platform and the adjacent basinal environments. High-resolution seafloor mapping, seismic data, oceanographic data and sedimentological sampling from modern slopes, as well as detailed and comprehensive outcrop studies of exhumed platforms allowed to significantly amend platform slope depositional models during the last years that allow to read the environmental record in great detail.
This session aims to bring together researchers from these different disciplines to document the highly dynamic carbonate platform slope to basin environment and illustrate their significance for to decipher the environmental changes through time.
Description. The distribution and density of carbonate-producing benthic organisms highly depends on environmental variables, such as light, temperature, nutrients, current speed, substrate texture and supply rates. In turn, growth and development of benthic communities, as well as post-mortem processes affecting their remains, may highly influence the seafloor morphology, sediment properties and other aspects of the seabed. This is true especially of marine ecosystem engineers, either producing carbonates (such as corals, coralline algae, bivalves) or lacking mineralized skeletons (e.g. seagrass, cyanobacteria, burrowing macrofauna). There are also important organism-organism interactions at work, such as in the case of bioerosion.
The mechanisms fostering or inhibiting these interactions within carbonate depositional systems are still little understood. But clearly the modifications wrought on the physical surrounds by the benthic biota influence the acoustic signals used to map the seafloor, which implies that acoustic remote sensing potentially conveys information on presences, types and changeability of benthic communities and their carbonate production. Different acoustic systems can cover various resolutions and footprint sizes.
This session aims at bringing together scientists interested in modern and ancient marine bio-geo interactions, with special emphasis on carbonate depositional settings from shallow- to deep-water environments. Our main goal is to promote a constructive cross-disciplinary debate on:
Conveners. Daniel ARIZTEGUI (University of Geneva, CHE), Raphaël BOURILLOT (Ensegid-Bordeaux INP, FRA), Anneleen FOUBERT (University of Fribourg, CHE), Emmanuelle VENNIN (University of Bourgogne, FRA), Pieter T. VISSCHER (University of Connecticut, USA)
Description. Microbialites are organosedimentary deposits formed through the mineralization of benthic microbial mats and/or trapping and binding of sedimentary particles. These structures are abundant in modern – sometimes extreme – environments (e.g., hypersaline lakes; hydrothermal sources; caves) and are common in the fossil record, hence constituting an invaluable archive of past Earth’s surface and subsurface evolution. The last two decades have seen an emergence of studies focusing on microbe-mineral interactions and formation of microbial sedimentary fabrics. More recently, early diagenetic processes have also gained research attention. Many advances in methodology, e.g., omics approaches, imaging techniques such as micro-XRF and micro CT scans, have allowed a better understanding of microbialite formation from initial development to evolution during early and late diagenesis. The understanding of preservation modalities of modern microbial mats allows for a better interpretation of the fossil record. This transdisciplinary session combines research on fossil and modern microbialites with a broad focus such as sedimentology, (bio)geochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, geomicrobiology, and mineralogy.
The main objectives of the session are to review recent and ongoing developments in this field in order to: (i) refine the understanding of microbialite formation in modern sedimentary environments to (ii) have an increased understanding of the modalities of their preservation to (iii) ultimately improve the interpretation of the fossil record.
Examples of topics included in this session are:
Description. In this session we seek contributions to provide a better understanding of the complex history of carbonate platform growth and demise successions through the Phanerozoic. Exploration well and 2D/3D seismic data in hydrocarbon-bearing basins can provide direct access to the composition and stratigraphic evolution of ancient carbonate platforms. In the recent years, high-resolution seafloor mapping, seismic data, oceanographic data and sedimentological sampling from recent to modern systems, as well as detailed and comprehensive outcrop studies of exhumed margins allowed to significantly improve our understanding of local versus regional controls on carbonate platform growth and drowning events at multiple timescales.
This session will highlight the latest research on the steering mechanisms of sediment variations and stacking patterns of carbonate sedimentary systems. Contributions related to the seismo-stratigraphic facies, diagenesis and carbonate platform architectures are also welcomed, as well as studies on carbonate reservoir properties.
Conveners. Arnoud SLOOTMAN (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KSA), Laura O’CONNELL (Southern Illinois University, USA), Daniela BASSO (University of Milano-Bicocca, ITA), Tracy FRANK (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA), Maria MUTTI (University of Potsdam, GER)
Description. Marine carbonate deposition is not limited to clear tropical seas. Non-tropical marine carbonates include temperate and cold-water carbonates originating in less warm (winter mean <20°C), possibly turbid settings that are not limited to the photic zone of the water column. Such carbonates are primarily the skeletal remains of heterozoan components, including coralline algae, bryozoans, cold-water corals, mollusks, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera. Biogenic carbonates have traditionally been thought of as tropical deposits. Research throughout the past few decades has found that non-tropical carbonates occur under a wide range of modern marine conditions and seawater temperatures, extending deep into the rock record. Ancient examples are being unearthed and reinterpreted on the basis of the growing knowledge of contemporary analogues. Recently, new methods for delimiting modern oceanographic controls on sedimentation and interpretations of ancient deposits have been implemented. Temperate and cold-water carbonate sedimentation have played a significant role in many parts of the world, including (but not limited to) the Neogene Mediterranean region and south Australian coast.
We aim to bring together a broad range of researchers working on non-tropical marine carbonates to establish the current state of this field of carbonate sedimentology. Depositional environments include subtropical, warm-temperate, cool-water, and cold-water provinces. We encourage submissions that discuss carbonates seemingly deposited in warm marine waters, but which have heterozoan cool-water signatures as a result of environmental conditions such as high nutrient levels. We particularly welcome submissions from young scientists.
Description. Reefs are one of the most diverse carbonate systems, and they are known from a broad range of depositional settings in Precambrian and Phanerozoic times. Bioconstructors and reef ecosystems can be studied from very different perspectives and with very different methodological approaches.
The objectives of this session are to gather a broad scientific community dealing with reefs and bioconstructions in the largest possible sense, the organisms, which constructed them, the processes and factors, which controlled their formation and demise, the depositional environment, their diagenetic history, and their stratigraphic context.
Description. Over the Earth’s history, oceanic carbonate production has shown large changes in terms of global accumulation rate but also in terms of spatial distribution. The evolution of chemical conditions in the ocean, modifications of the accommodation space and evolutionary processes induced changes in biological activity are the most common forcing factors incriminated to explain those changes.
This session will discuss carbonate production in neritic realm (e.g. Callovian-Oxfordian carbonate production crisis) and in pelagic realm (e.g. the emergence of the pelagic carbonate production) and will tends to highlight physical mechanisms (e.g. temperature, sea-level), chemical mechanisms (e.g. ocean saturation state, migration of the CCD) and biological mechanisms (e.g. evolution of new producers) forcing the global carbonate production variations. We are particularly interesting in gathering together fields and modeling specialists to emulate discussions over this scientific question.
Conveners. Claude COLOMBIÉ (University of Lyon 1, FRA), Bernadette TESSIER (CNRS, University of Caen Normandie, FRA), Joep STORMS (Delft University of Technology, NLD), Anaëlle SIMONNEAU (ISTO, University of Orléans, FRA)
Description. Sedimentation depends on environmental (i.e., physical, chemical or biological), tectonic or climatic (i.e., cyclic or episodic) controls that act at different spatiotemporal scales. While extensive studies (i.e., a region on a few tens to thousands to millions of years) allow the assessment of global or regional controlling factors, restrictive studies (i.e., a site on a few centuries to a few years) focus on defining regional or local factors.
Therefore, multiscale approach seems to be the best way to define the broadest range of controlling factors of sedimentary, oceanic, atmospheric or ecosystems.
Description. In the last decades, multi-disciplinary studies at the boundary between petroleum industry and academics focused on the improvement of both reserves estimation and the “Yet to Find” in the inherently heterogeneous carbonate porous media classically associated with low recovery factor (10 to 30 %). The quality of carbonate reservoirs is strongly influenced by the original depositional facies and their later paragenetic evolution and burial history. To understand the complex distribution of reservoir properties and the impact on the hydrocarbon potentials of carbonate sequences it is fundamental to correctly asses the initial depositional setting and it lateral and spatial variability but also the impact of the burial and later diagenetic fluids circulating within the carbonate sequence.
This session aims at attracting presentations of studies that focus on the characterization of carbonate depositional systems, on the paragenetic evolution of carbonate sequences, on the petrophysical characterization of carbonate rocks and reservoirs and on new approaches to the modeling of carbonate sequences and reservoirs.
Description. This session seeks to address how diagenetic processes are controlling carbonate rock properties and to review the recent analytical methods, new perspectives and challenges in the field of carbonate diagenesis. Key issues/topics are:
The objective of this session is to bring together specialists coming from academia and industry, encouraging exchanges and integrated works. The aim is also to provide an update on our understanding of diagenetic processes in carbonate rocks and their integration in the prediction of rock properties (reservoir properties, mineral content, ...). All these issues are key to understand the origin and the prediction of economic resources in sedimentary basins (oil & gas, ore deposit, geothermal energy, CO2 and waste storage).
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